Introduction to Referencing
All information, ideas and quotations from anything you have consulted in order to write an assignment at university must be correctly referenced.
There are several different styles of referencing and it is important to check with your tutors to make sure you know which style you need to use.
Failure to follow the instructions of tutors regarding referencing style could lead to students losing marks in assessments.
The university supports four referencing styles, Harvard, OSCOLA, APA and MHRA. For more information on each of these, click a box below.
What is Referencing?
Referencing is the process of acknowledging your sources. Sources include anything you take information from, e.g., books, journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, lectures, legislation, maps, television and radio programmes, works of art, dramatic performances, etc.
By referencing your sources you are demonstrating to your tutors the breadth of your research and reinforcing your own arguments. Using a wide range of sources is excellent academic practice and can improve your marks.
Referencing enables your tutors and anyone else reading your work to check your sources and follow up information for themselves.
Failure to reference correctly, or worse still, not to reference at all, may lead to accusations of plagiarism (using other people's ideas, words and research as if they were your own. Plagiarism is a serious offence at university and may lead to disciplinary action.
Harvard style and guides
This style consists of two parts:
The author and date of publication appear in brackets immediately after the idea, information or quote you are referencing, e.g., Political reform is needed (Kruger, 2007).
- You need to include the page number in your text when you quote directly from a source, e.g., For some, ‘going green’ is driven by the prospect of “pocketing substantial government subsidies” (Lawson, 2009, p. 118).
- You also need to include the page number if you re-write an author’s specific idea or sentence using your own words, e.g., Swetnam (2004, p. 95) has argued that consistency is of the utmost importance in referencing.
- Where the author’s name appears in your essay, you do not need to put the name in brackets, e.g., Luke (2008) highlights the importance of business to business pressure.
A reference list
This appears at the end of your assignment giving full publication details for all of the sources you referred to, e.g., Kruger, D. (2007) On fraternity: politics beyond liberty and equality. London: Institute for the Study of Civil Society.
Your sources should be listed in alphabetical order by author surname in your reference list.
Harvard referencing varies in format. The guidance provided by London Met Library Service is based on the style in the book:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide, 9th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) is the standard referencing style used in Law.
- Official guide to using OSCOLA
- Quick Guide
- EU cases – using the ECLI
The new European Case Law Identifier that was introduced in April 2014.
The current OSCOLA guide was published before this so does not include instructions on how to use it, but their recommendation is to treat it in the same way as a Neutral Citation, adding it after the case name and before the report citation:
Case C-176/03 Commission v Council EU:C:2005:542,  ECR I-7879.
For unreported cases, cite the ECLI rather than the OJ notice or the court and date (as advised in OSCOLA 2.6.2). For example:
Case C-542/09 Commission v the Netherlands EU:C:2012:346.
Remember: Always check with your tutors to make sure you know which referencing style they expect you to use.
APA (American Psychological Association) Style is the standard writing style (including referencing) used in psychology. Purdue University's Online Writing Lab has a useful guide to using APA Style on their website.